Commission Newsletters

Commission Newsletter 2021 - 1

1. Editorial

Winter 2020/21 has presented the world with a second and even a third wave of the Covid-19 outbreak, and the pandemic is far from over. At the same time, however, vaccination campaigns started, raising hopes that life may gradually return to ‘normal’ (i.e. as before the pandemic). These campaigns, however, were a source of increased marginalization. The rich countries could muster sufficient funds to acquire the necessary jabs, whereas the poorer part of the world was left behind – the ‘new limes’ continues to exist.

  • Some of our members have published papers on the pandemic (see following sections) although we are still far from being able to assess its true impact. Short-term effects (including the sometimes-panic reactions of governments) are, however visible. We plan to produce a first substantial publication on the topic in the months to come (see below).

  • Apart from already published works, we believe that there are a lot of questions and approaches opened and raised by our members researchers in the meantime and we are looking forward to the coming two major events: the Istanbul Commission Session during the (virtual) IGC and the pre-congress virtual Romania conference organized by Cluj Napoca University (SUBMISSIONS ARE STILL OPEN until JUNE 25, 2021). As announced before, the Commission is considering a special COVID-19 volume within our Springer series “Perspectives on geographical marginality”. We are hoping that these conferences will bring more valuable contributions to the book project.

  • We have just received the information from IGU about the latest Commission: Commission on Research Methods in Geography. Visit its web site: https://igumethods.org/. It brings to us also new opportunities for commission networking in the future: Research methods are at the base of everything.

  • Recently, we have revived our Commission’s website and are still working on it (mainly thanks to our member and webmaster Stanko Pelc): http://www.igu-marginality.info/. Please save the address and let us have your suggestions, news and information worth sharing and publishing on the website.

2. Activities for 2020-2024

A) One of the Commission’s special efforts is and will be to enlarge the participation of Geographers from the Developing World. This has been possible to a limited extent only when the IGU provided the commissions with adequate funding. But the situation has changed and we dispose of a small amount to provide one or two contributions.

This is, however, not sufficient to assist colleagues of poorer countries (like Lao PDR, Cambodia, or sub-Saharan countries) to organise any scientific meeting, but there are other funding opportunities that should be addressed. Our last meeting (2019) in Nepal has helped to enlarge the participation from South Asian countries.

B) Conferences and scientific meetings We plan to hold six or seven scientific activities during the next four-year plan.

  • 2021: Romania (Commission conference) and Istanbul (IGU congress)

  • 2022: Reims (Commission conference) and Paris (IGU regional congress)

  • 2023: Malaysia (Commission conference)

  • 2024: Ireland (IGU Congress and Commission conference)

Note: we had also received invitations from Namibia and Bangladesh for commission conferences, but the current pandemic has turned all our plans upside down. The new steering committee will take decisions on this matter.

C) Networking between members:

This takes place on an individual level. The Steering Committee encourages you to communicate existing networks so we can diffuse information about them among members. A short mail to the secretary will do.

D) Networking between commission:

We plan to continue the discussions and work with commissions whose objectives are similar to our own, depending of the opportunities. The newly launched Commission on Research Methods in Geography provides an additional chance for networking in the future (https://igumethods.org/).

3. Publications

3.1 Perspectives on geographical marginalization

The series editors are currently actively preparing the seventh volume in our Springer series, based on the papers of the Kathmandu conference in December 2019. Details should be available in our next newsletter.

3.2 Projects

For the following two projects we launch a call for contributions:

  1. Springer has invited us to produce a volume related to COVID-19 issues, most likely the eighth volume in the series. We have a number of potential authors and there would be room for more chapters. It is planned to include the papers registered for the Istanbul IGC next August as well as other related papers on the topic from the Romania conference. Anybody interested in contributing as well should send an e-mail to the secretary. Details will be provided later, probably after the IGC.

  2. There has also been a request from the IGU to contribute to a volume to mark the union’s centenary. The project is not completely confirmed, but our commission should contribute as well as the others. We have no details as yet, but volunteers should contact the secretary.

3.3 Members have signalled a number of publications on the COVID-19 pandemic

  • Matei, E., Ilovan, O.-R., Sandu, C.B., Dumitrache, L., Istrate, M., Jucu, I.S., Gavrilidis, A.A. (2021). Early Covid-19 Pandemic Impacts on Society and Environment in Romania. Perception Among Population with Higher Education. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 20(2), 319-330, WOS:000620355500016

  • Firuza Begham Mustafa. 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on agriculture in Malaysia: Insights from mixed methods. In. Weng. M. L., Kaur, S. & Cheong, H. F. (Eds.) COVID-19, Business, and Economy in Malaysia: Retrospective and Prospective Perspectives. Routledge (In press)

Please inform the secretary about your publications on marginality and globalization issues so they can be signalled in the next Newsletter. Members are keen on being updated on your scientific activity. Thank you to all who have so far followed my appeal.

3.4 Related publication

An interesting publication has been signalled by the IGU, concerning the conflict between Palestinians and Israel. I attach the description given in the mail of May 19, 2021

Atlas of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Fully freely downloadable - Available in Hebrew, Arab, English and French The Truman Institute's Atlas of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, written by Shaul Arieli, is a tool that presents the territory disputed by the two parties and the history of the geography of this conflict through the maps and partition plans that for more than a century have been envisaged to resolve it. It shows that it is still possible, if each party agrees to give up part of its claims on this disputed territory and to recognize the legitimacy of the other, to reach a compromise to create two states on the Land of Israel/Palestine.The work presented is the result of the author's triple expertise. Shaul Arieli, who is a former commander in the Israeli army, a historian and one of the negotiators of the Geneva Accords, crosses with this Atlas, a century of conflict by inscribing it in time and space, appealing to History, Geography but also to a pedagogical neutrality.Citing the Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916), the Balfour Declaration (1917), the Treaty of Versailles (1919), the San Remo Conference (1920), the Peel Commission (1937) or the United Nations Partition Plan (1947), he reminds us that the various projections of the division of the region and the drawing of borders have a prehistory. Referring to and detailing the more recent attempts, the Oslo Accords, the Camp David Summit, the Taba Summit, the Geneva Initiative and even the Trump Plan, he demonstrates that all the solutions advocated can only be based on the recognition of a dual legitimacy and he proposes a border line.A major element of the demonstration, the succession of maps shows over the years, in a chronological and irrefutable way, an inexorable progression of the Israeli colonization, making compromise and partition more and more difficult but not impossible, he proves it.

4. Conferences

Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic is on the upsurge again. Physical meetings are subject to a return of our society to some sort of normalcy and will hopefully take place in 2022.

4.1 Commission conferences 2021

The planned virtual conference has been postponed as the time scheduled was too tight. We do not know if and when it will take place. Further news will be published via a NewsFlash.

Romania 2021

As a consequence of COVID-19 and the general lockdown, travel restrictions, and closed borders, our Commission pre-congress meeting has been transformed into a virtual conference. Our Romanian colleague Raularian Rusu of Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) offers to meet us via Zoom on August 9 and 10, 2021. Since there is no travel and accommodation (costs) involved, we hope for a wide participation. The deadline for submissions is extended and still open till 25 June 2021! For details see the conference website https://georeg.conference.ubbcluj.ro

Istanbul IGC

As you know, the 34th IGC in Istanbul has been transformed to the virtual format. It will take place August 16-20, 2021. Details can be seen from the website (https://www.igc2020.org/en). Our Commission will participate with a paper session within the COVID-19 topic and therefore be officially represented. (for a session description see https://www.igc2020.org/en/BRIDGING-IN-A-COVIDIAN-WORLD-(OF-STILL)-INCREASINGINEQUALITIES.html).

4.2 Commission conferences 2022-2024

The IGU will celebrate its centenary in Paris in 2022 with a special congress. The Commission is planning to have a session at the Paris congress, celebrating at the same time its 40-year jubilee. Also, our colleague Céline Burger has offered to organize a pre-congress conference in her university of Reims, followed by a field trip to the Ardennes mountains.

Our colleagues from Malaysia (Proffs. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa and Jamalunlaili Abdullah) proposed to hold a conference in their country in 2023. The 35th IGC will take place in Ireland in 2024, and we shall discuss our annual commission conference (local organizer and location) with our Irish colleagues.

In 2019, we also received an offer from our former Steering Committee member Prof. Kenneth Mantengu in Windhoek (Namibia). He suggested to organize our 2021 conference in Namibia. A further offer for 2021 came from Bangladesh (Dhaka). Unfortunately, Covid-19 has upset all plans. The new steering committee will discuss these offers and see how we can honour our colleagues’ initiatives.

5. Obituary

Sadly, our member and colleague Raghubir Chand has passed away on March 26, 2021. As professor at Kumaun University in Nainital (Uttarakhand, India), Raghubir organized a successful conference in his university in May 2011 with a very instructive field trip to the Himalayas in the region of Munsiari. He was the chief editor of the first volume in our series and co-editor of volume 2. As a researcher, Raghubir devoted most of his efforts to the study of mountain regions, particularly the Himalayas. Among his work there is a study of the Brokpa people in Bhutan.

6. Steering committee for 2020-2024

The virtual IGU General Assembly, held via Zoom on August 21, 2020, approved the commissions and task forces. We had handed in our proposal with a new chair (see below) in time. The approval means that this new Commission is now operational.

Chair:

Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Faculty of Science, Department of Geography

Marulićev trg 19/II,10000 Zagreb

Croatia

Web: www.pmf.unizg.hr/geog/en/borna.fuerst-bjelis

bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr

Members:

Ass. Prof. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa

Deputy Dean (Undergraduate), Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

firuza@um.edu.my

Prof. Ruth Kark

Department of Geography Faculty of Social Sciences

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905,

Israel

mskark@mscc.huji.ac.il

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto

Nara University of Education,

Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528

Japan

daichizu@gmail.com


Prof. Olli Lehtonen

Department of Geographical and Historical Studies

University of Eastern Finland

Joensuu

Finland

olli.lehtonen@uef.fi


Prof. Shoba Shrestha,

Central Department of Geography,

Tribhuvan University,

Kathmandu

Nepal

shova216@gmail.com


Prof. Márcio Valença

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, IIP · Departamento de Políticas Públicas

Natal

Brazil

marciovalenca10@gmail.com


Prof. Alain François Loukou,

Université Alassane Ouattara

Bouaké

Côte d’Ivoire

Alain_loukou@hotmail.com


Prof. Catherine Robinson

University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD 4072,

Australia

Catherine.Robinson@csiro.au


Commission Secretary

Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber

Université de Fribourg

Département de Géosciences, Unité de Géographie

Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, Suisse

E-mail: walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch


YOUR ADDRESS UPDATE:

Please help us to keep the address list updated by communicating your new address, phone and fax number and e-mail address to me (bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr) and to our secretary (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch). You can also signal potential new members, colleagues who are

interested in our topic. – Thank you!


I wish you all the best and stay healthy


Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš, Commission chair

Commission Newsletter 2020 – 2

Editorial – Commission renewal – Publications – Conferences – Steering Committee

1. Editorial: Some reflections on the Covidian world in 2020

There is a year behind us, incomparable to any other in the recent past. Almost a year has passed since the world was hit by the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Back then one could not predict its real outreach and dimensions. It came sudden and fast and no one was really prepared to what was going to follow. Step by step a tiny but almighty virus conquered the whole world. At some points during the first spring wave, it seemed that some parts of the world were hit stronger than others, but the pandemic finally reached every corner of the world, it was just a matter of time. Global urban megalopolises with extremely high concentrations of people and with dense global communication networks were the first nodes of its spreading. A similar pattern may be found also in historical pandemics, e.g. with the plague that spread via major global trade routes of the time to major world ports as foci from where the disease spread further inland. At first, some more or less marginalized part of the world may have looked safe and their marginality an advantage. However, since we live in a globalized world where everything is connected to everything in many ways, no one could really be spared. They were swallowed as well, but simply a bit later.

Although, at the end, we may say that in front of the virus we are all the same, all tiny and vulnerable, regardless of social and political power, wealth, education, position, opportunities etc., indeed again, we are not. Since the 19th century onwards, following the European colonization of the world, the rift between the dominating North (the Centre) and the dominated South (the Margins) has widened and it still persists, even widening. Neoliberal economy and politics create a world of inequalities and injustice. They are based on the dualism of dominators/rulers and marginalized. In order to maintain their power, the former imperatively need the later (Fuerst-Bjeliš & Leimgruber, 2020, p.10). The limes between the powerful against the dominated exists on a global level as well as on regional and local scales (ibid., p. 4). In a global world no one is able to live on its own, to be self-sufficient, being that state, or a region or a local community. Marginalized areas, being weak in every possible term, often have no other solution than to comply with rulers (ibid., p. 5 after Dicken, 2015, p. 35). Many countries impoverished by colonial and neoliberal extractivism and exploitation have extremely weak health infrastructures. And COVID-19 is just one further devastating threat added to already existing ones, such as extreme poverty, lack of food, clean water and inefficient sanitization. On the other side, some research has shown that even within more favorable regions, there exist the unequal distribution of the virus, which seems to hit already vulnerable people more severely, including ethnic minorities, migrants and prison inmates (Armiero, 2020, p. 453 after Dyer, 2020 and Smith and Judd, 2020). More so, the pandemic has massively changed the world and our ways of life. Respecting the measures of social distancing and travel bans meant we had to rely on technology more then ever. Home-working and home-schooling has become our everyday routine. But this also put already marginalized regions into unfavorable and even more marginalized position. The less well-of segments of the population, already marginalized faced great difficulties in their survival efforts (Leimgruber & Fuerst-Bjeliš, 2020, p.201).

On the other side, the need of social distancing and isolation in order to stop the spread of virus, turned many of us to our internal, local and private environments and to outdoor activities, (re)evaluating and (re)experiencing the environmental values of our wellbeing. Slowness movement and travel into the isolated and quiet places of nature gained new importance. Does this perhaps make a new chance for marginal areas? There are many questions to be asked about how pandemic will ultimately change our world and affect marginal areas.

Commission’s new challenges and goals

Apart from the general focus of our Commission - that is to view globalization and regional/local development as interrelated processes, we are faced with a new challenge: the research on multiple dimensions of the impact of the pandemic on marginalization in a global context.

In this wake, and in new pandemic terms, we envisaged a virtual online workshop with the aim of questioning the implications of pandemic on marginalization and marginalized areas (working title: Quelle marginalité en Covidie? / What about marginality in Covidia?), planned for early 2021.

Also, the Commission will be represented at the special COVID-19 session to be held during the IGC in Istanbul (August 2021). With the general question in mind, the following topics are proposed: 1. Forces responsible for the dynamics and structures of marginality at various scales in the 2020 Covidian context. 2. The role of the various agents in those processes in the Covidian context. 3. Types of marginality in the Covidian context. 4. Responses to economic and societal problems with marginal people. 5. Development of theoretical and methodological tools.

And finally, an edited volume about the Covidian perspectives on marginality is under consideration as a project. We believe that planned workshop and special COVID-19 session at the IGU Istanbul IGC will produce a fruitful discussion and potential contributions to the book.

References:

Armiero, M. (2020). Something I Have Learned from COVID-19. Environment and History 26 (3), 451–454.

Dyer, O. (2020) ‘Covid-19: Black people and other minorities are hardest hit in US’, British Medical Journal 369 10.1136/bmj.m1483 (Published 14 Apr. 2020), available online at https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1483)

Fuerst-Bjeliš B., Leimgruber W. (2020) Marginalization – The Dark Side of Globalization. In: Fuerst-Bjeliš B., Leimgruber W. (eds) Globalization, Marginalization and Conflict. Perspectives on Geographical Marginality, vol 6. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53218-5_1

Leimgruber W., Fuerst-Bjeliš B. (2020) Conclusion. In: Fuerst-Bjeliš B., Leimgruber W. (eds) Globalization, Marginalization and Conflict. Perspectives on Geographical Marginality, vol 6. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53218-5_13

Smith, J.A., Judd, J., (2020):‘COVID-19: Vulnerability and the power of privilege in a pandemic’, Health Promotion Journal of Australia 31 158–160. doi:10.1002/hpja.333, available online at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hpja.333

Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš, Commission Chair

Walter Leimgruber, Commission Secretary

2. Renewal of the Commission

The virtual Annual Assembly of the IGU of August 21, 2020 has renewed our Commission on the basis of the following objectives and accepted as our new chair Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš of Zagreb (Croatia) who succeeds Prof. Steve Déry of Québec (Canada) and will ensure our future activities with a partially renewed Steering Committee. Our new number is C20.32.

Present objectives of the commission and proposed objectives for 2020-24,

A. The name of the Commission

We propose to continue with the name: “IGU Commission on Marginalization, Globalization and Regional and Local Response”

B. A concise statement of the mission of the Commission

The mission of the Commission is to research marginality and the processes of marginalization from different perspectives and with a geographical basis. The main focus is to better understand multiscalar relations between the globalization process and how marginality evolves at the local and regional levels. Moreover, we seek to improve our understanding of local and regional responses to different forms of marginality and marginalization processes.

Given that, during the last four years, inequalities and marginality have increased instead of receding, the commission intends to continue to follow the objectives that were in its focus already in this period, that is:

1. To further the understanding of marginality and the processes of marginalization in our globalized world, through the study and analysis of the forces responsible for the dynamics and structures of marginality at various scales. They will include, among other variables, issues of ethnicity, technology, gender, social structure and the environment.

2. To analyze marginality as the result of power relations within societies, more precisely of human perceptions and decisions, leading to the understanding of the role of the various agents in those processes, and their response to prevailing conditions.

  1. To develop comparative approaches in order to identify various types of marginality and to put them into perspective and assess their role in an increasingly globalized world. Emphasis in particular needs to be placed on the experience of the Global South.

  2. To study policy/institutional/community responses to economic and societal problems where we can find marginal people – especially where they form clusters, at various scales in relation to local, regional and societal development; this includes to study human responses to global change, and their implications for marginalization.

  3. The development of theoretical and methodological tools of understanding of marginality in itself, as well as for the processes of marginalization and demarginalization.

  4. To improve the role of research, education and teaching in decision-making/politics in order to reduce inequalities et and marginality.

The use and development of appropriate theory and methodology is to be involved in each of the above.

Five major achievements for 2016-20 and five major activities to be undertaken during 2020-24.

A. Achievements for 2016-2020

1) Number of members. Our Commission counts now 352 members (January 2020), an increase of 15% from 306 members in December 2015, including 36 from developing Asia and 13 from Africa.

2) Conferences and scientific meetings: We have held six scientific activities (each can count as an achievement): 2016 (2), 2017 (1), 2018 (1), 2019 (2)

3) Publications: We started to edit a book series, published by Springer: “Perspectives on Geographical Marginality”. Since 2016, we have published four books. Each can also be seen as one achievement in itself.

4) Networking: We have published two Newsletter per year from 2016 to 2019 (total = 8) + several Newsflash bulletins to keep in touch with our members, depending of the needs.

5) Networking between commissions: In 2018 (Quebec), we have successfully organised panels with the Commission on “Regional development” and more talks were done with this commission and also the commission on “Geography of governance” for the 2020 conference (Romania) and congress (Istanbul). For now, these conversations and potential organisations have been postponed to next year (2021).

B. Activities for 2020-2024

1) One of the Commission’s special efforts is and will be to enlarge the participation of Geographers from the Developing World. This has been possible to a limited extent only when the IGU provided the commissions with adequate funding. Any reduction of these subsidies will make such initiatives impossible in the future. Moreover, in this wake, due to the lack of funding, it is also quite difficult for colleagues of poorer countries (like Lao PDR, Cambodia, or sub-Saharan countries) to organise any scientific meeting. Our last meeting (2019) in Nepal has helped to enlarge the participation from South Asian countries.

2) Conferences and scientific meetings: we plan to hold seven or eight scientific activities during the next four-year plan.

- 2020: virtual conference, organized by Laval University (Quebec) in December

- 2021: Romania (Commission conference) and Istanbul (IGU congress)

*Note: we also have commitments from Namibia and Bangladesh for commission conferences to be held between 2021 and 2023. However, the current Covidian pandemic has changed our plans. The next steering committee will take decisions on this matter.

- 2022: Paris (IGU regional congress)

- 2023: Malaysia (Commission conference)

- 2024: Ireland (IGU congress)

3) Publications: Two new books are expected to be published in our Series in 2020 or early 2021. And at least two more are planned for the rest of 2021-2024.

4) Networking between members: We plan to continue to send two Newsletters per year (June and December) as well as several Newsflashes to our members, in order to keep them informed of the various activities organised by the Commission or some of its members.

5) Networking between commission: We plan to continue the discussions and work with commissions which objectives are similar to our own, depending of the opportunities.

3. Publications

The fifth and sixth volumes of our series have been published by Springer in autumn 2020:

Stanko Pelc and Etienne Nel (editors), Responses to geographical marginality and marginalization. From social innovation to regional development, xiii + 183 pp.

Borna Fuerst- Bjeliš and Walter Leimgruber (editors), Globalization, marginalization and conflict – political and social processes, xvii + 202 pp.

Cooperation with Springer continues to be excellent. We are also preparing further books, looking forward to your announcements of single/double author or edited volumes. If you have a project, please contact a member of the series editors:

Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš (bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr), Walter Leimgruber (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch), Etienne Nel (etienne.nel@otago.ac.nz), Stanko Pelc (stanko.pelc@guest.arnes.si).

Publications signalled by Commission members

Kenneth Lynch, Etienne Nel, Tony Binns, ‘Transforming Freetown’: Dilemmas of planning and development in a West African City, Cities 101 (2020) 102694

Lehtonen Olli, Kotavaara Ossi, Muilu Toivo, Huovari Janne and Vihinen Hilkka (2020). Kausiväestö moninaistaa kuvaa aluerakenteen kehityksestä Suomessa (English abstract: Seasonal population diversifies the picture of the development of the regional structure in Finland).Terra 132:2, 69-84. DOI 10.30677/terra.85022

Alasalmi Juho, Busk Henna, Holappa Veera, Huovari Janne, Härmälä Valtteri, Kotavaara Ossi, Lehtonen Olli, Muilu Toivo, Rusanen Jarmo and Vihinen Hilkka (2020). Työn ja työvoiman alueellinen liikkuvuus ja monipaikkainen väestö (English summary: Regional mobility of work and workforce and multilocal population). Publication Series of the Government’s Analysis, Assessment and Research 2020:12.http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-287-928-8

Lehtonen Olli, Muilu Toivo and Vihinen Hilkka (2019). Monipaikkaisuus maaseudun terveyspalveluiden mahdollistajana (Multi-locality as an enabler of rural health services, in Finnish). Maaseudun uusi aika 2019:2, 7-29. http://www.mua-lehti.fi/monipaikkaisuus-maaseudun-terveyspalveluiden-mahdollistajana/

Lehtonen Olli, Muilu Toivo and Vihinen Hilkka (2019). Multi-local living – an opportunity for rural health services in Finland? European Countryside 11:4, 257-280. DOI 10.2478/euco-2019-0013

Vihinen Hilkka, Voutilainen Olli, Muilu Toivo, Lehtonen Olli, Niskanen Olli, Strandén Max and Knuuttila Marja (2019). Manner-Suomen maaseudun kehittämisohjelmien aluetalous- ja työllisyysvaikutukset - vaikuttavuusanalyysi kaudelta 2007-2013 (English summary: Impacts of Rural Development Programmes on regional economies and employment - impact analysis for the period 2007–2013). Publications of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2019:16. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-366-005-2

Kotavaara Niina, Kotavaara Ossi, Rusanen Jarmo and Muilu Toivo (2018). University graduate migration in Finland. Geoforum 96, 97-107. DOI 10.1016/j.geoforum.2018.07.010

Camară, G. (2020) – Responses to Geographical Marginality and Marginalization. From Social Innovation to Regional Development. Papers in Regional Science, 99(6), 1827-1828

Firuza Begham Mustafa. (2019). Akuakultur Udang Harimau (Aquaculture of Tiger prawn). Kuala Lumpur: University Malaya Press.

Firuza Begham Mustafa. (2020). Geografi Pertanian (Agricultural Geography). Kuala Lumpur: University Malaya Press.

Firuza Begham Mustafa. (2020). Soil Geography (Soil Geography). Kuala Lumpur: University Malaya Press.

Firuza Begham Mustafa, M. Lokman Ali & Subha Bhassu. (2020). Akuakultur Udang Galah (Giant freshwater prawn aquaculture). Tanjung Malim: Penerbit Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Subha Bhassu, M. Lokman Ali &Firuza Begham Mustafa (2020). Nurseri Udang Galah (Giant freshwater prawn nursery). Tanjung Malim: Penerbit Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.

Firuza Begham Mustafa. 2019. Field work-based project paper assessment. In N.A. Hamzaid & F.A. Ghaffar (Ed.), Eyes on Learning, Hearts on Teaching (pp.146-153). Kuala Lumpur: Academic Enhancement and Leadership Centre (ADeC).

Benjamin Ezekiel Bwadi & Firuza Begham Mustafa. (2019). Site suitability analysis of infrastructure facilities for giant freshwater prawn farming. In Qian Lu, Emerging Technologies and Research for Eco-friendly Aquaculture, London, IntechOpen ISBN 978-1-83881-200-3.

Adamu Sani Jauro, Firuza Begham Mustafa & Umar Abdullahi Abba. 2019. An assessment of soil fertility management practices around Dadin-Kowa Town, Gombe-Nigeria. In Seow Ta Wee & Thennanoon, T.M.S.P.K.(Ed). Environmental Management & Sustainable Development Series 1. (pp.59-66) Batu Pahat: UTHM.

Didams Gideon, Firuza Begham Mustafa & Idakwo Victor (2020). The application of an expert knowledgedriven approach for assessing gully erosion susceptibility in the subtropical Nigerian savannah. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. Nov 2020. (ISI-Indexed)

Didams Gideon & Firuza Begham Mustafa. (2019). Investigation on physical factors influencing permanent gully development in Southern Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. ISI indexed. (ISI-Indexed)

Godwin Aliagha, Firuza B Mustafa. J. Mohamad. (2020). Geochemical study of Ecological Risk Potential of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Lake Sediment -Malaysia - from the Context of Ecological Disturbance Theoretical Tradition. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment. https://www.worldresearchesjournal.com/article/geochemical-study-of-ecological-risk-potential-of-heavy-metal-contamination-in-urban-lake-sediment-malaysia-from-the-context-of-ecological-disturbance-theoretical-tradition Vol - 13, Issue – 03. ISSN: 09720626. Volume 13, Issue 03, September, 2020 (SCOPUS-Indexed)

Haris, S.M., Mustafa, F.B. & Raja Ariffin, R.N. (2020). Systematic Literature Review of Climate Change Governance Activities of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in Southeast Asia. Environmental Management (Q1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01355-9.(EMVM). 66:816–825 (ISI-Indexed)

Nur Syabeera Begum Nasir Ahmad & Firuza Begham Mustafa. (2019). Analisis perubahan guna tanah Negeri Sembilan melalui aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS). Geografia - Malaysian Journal of Society and Space. Vol 15, No 1 (Non-ISI/Non-SCOPUS)

Nur Syabeera BegumNasir Ahmad, Firuza Begham Mustafa, Safiah @ Yusmah Muhammad Yusoff & GideonDidams. (2020). A systematic review of soil erosion control practices on the agricultural land in Asia. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages 103-115 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2019). Multivariate design estimations under copulas constructions. Stage-1: Parametrical density constructions for defining flood marginals for the Kelantan River basin, Malaysia. Ocean Systems Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3 (2019) 287-328. DOI: https:// doi.org/10.12989/ose.2019.9.3.287 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). A nonparametric statistical framework using a kernel density estimator to approximate flood marginal distributions – a case study for the Kelantan River Basin in Malaysia. Water Supply ws2020081. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.081 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Bivariate flood distribution analysis under parametric copula framework: a case study for Kelantan River basin in Malaysia. Acta Geophys. 68, 821–859 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11600-020-00435-y (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Bivariate Hydrologic Risk Assessment of Flood Episodes using the Notation of Failure Probability. Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 6, No. 10, October, 2020 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Bivariate joint distribution analysis of the flood characteristics under semiparametric copula distribution framework for the Kelantan River basin in Malaysia. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Sciences. (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Copula-based multivariate flood probability construction: A review. Arabian journal of Geoscience 13, 132 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-5077-6 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Multivariate design estimations under copulas constructions. Stage-1: Parametrical density constructions for defining flood marginals for the Kelantan River basin, Malaysia. Ocean Systems Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3 (2019) 287-328 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Parametric Vine Copula Construction for Flood Analysis for Kelantan River Basin in Malaysia. Civil Engineering Journal (ISI or Web of science core collection). ISSN/eISSN- 2676-6957 / 2476-3055 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. (2020). Trivariate distribution modelling of flood characteristics using copula function—A case study for Kelantan River basin in Malaysia. AIMS Geosciences, 2020, 6(1): 92-130. doi: 10.3934/geosci.2020007 (ISI-Indexed)

Shahid Latif & Firuza Mustafa. 2020. A nonparametric copula distribution framework for bivariate joint distribution analysis of flood characteristics for the Kelantan River basin in Malaysia. AIMS Geosciences, 2020, 6(2): 171-198. doi: 10.3934/geosci.2020012 (ISI-Indexed)

Márcio Moraes Valença (2020), Urban crisis and the antivalue in David Harvey, Mercator, Fortaleza, v.19, https://doi.org/10.4215/rm2020.e19031 (also available in Portuguese: crise urbana e o antivalor em David Harvey)

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., y Jiménez Pelcastre, A. (2016). Organización del sector pesquero comercial ribereño en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Vizcaíno (México). Revista Geográfica Venezolana, 57(2), 236-259. Universidad de los Andes (Venezuela). Recuperado de http://www.saber.ula.ve/handle/123456789/42729

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., y Peyroti, G. F. (2016). Las áreas naturales protegidas de la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina): marco legal y ausencia de gestión territorial. Cuadernos Geográficos, 55(1), 33-58. Universidad de Granada (España). Recuperado de http://revistaseug.ugr.es/index.php/cuadgeo/article/view/3191

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., y Rivera, M. G. (2017). Organización y transformaciones de la pesca comercial ribereña en el Parque Nacional Bahía de Loreto (Baja California Sur, México). Ager. Revista de Estudios sobre Despoblación y Desarrollo Rural, 23, 59-96. Doi 10.4422/ager.2017.02

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., y Jiménez Pelcastre, A. (2017). Organización e impacto territorial de la actividad pesquera comercial ribereña en la Reserva de la biosfera Ría Celestún (México). Anales de Geografía de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (España), 37(2), 297-324. Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/AGUC.57727

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., y Jiménez Pelcastre, A. (2018). Orígenes y procesos territoriales del cooperativismo pesquero en la Zona Pacífico Norte de Baja California Sur (México), 1850-1976. América Latina en la Historia Económica, 25(1), 196-238. doi http://dx.doi.org/10.18232/alhe.841

Campos Flores, G. J., y Crespo Guerrero, J. M. (2018). Organización espacial de la pesca comercial ribereña en el Área de Protección de Flora y Fauna Laguna de Términos, México. Investigaciones Geográficas, 96(0), 1-21. doi http://dx.doi.org/10.14350/rig.59558

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., Jiménez Pelcastre, A., y Nava Martínez, J. D. (2019). Tensiones y conflictos territoriales en la pesca ribereña del Estado de Campeche, México (2013-2018). Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 82, 1-53. Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.21138/bage.2764

Crespo Guerrero, J. M., y Nava Martínez, J. D. (2020). Configuración Territorial de la pesca comercial ribereña en la Reserva de la Biosfera Los Petenes, Estado de Campeche (México). Estudios Geográficos, 81(288) 1-27 doi https://doi.org/10.3989/estgeogr.202055.055

Please send information to the secretary to be included with the next Newsletter. Members are keen on being updated on your scientific activity. Thank you to all who have followed my appeal.

4. Conferences

Currently, the Covid-19 pandemic is on the upsurge again. Physical meetings are subject to a return of our society to some sort of normalcy and will hopefully take place in 2021.

Commission conferences 2021

The planned virtual conference has been postponed to 2021 as the time scheduled was too tight. Further news will be published via a NewsFlash.

As a consequence of Covid-19 and the general lockdown, travel restrictions, and closed borders, also our Commission’s pre-congress meeting has been postponed. Our Romanian colleague Raularian Rusu of Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) will receive us during week 32, August 8/9 – 13, 2021. The programme will include paper sessions, local tours, a one-day field trip and a business meeting. The timing is such that participants will be able to reach Istanbul on time. There are direct flights from Cluj-Napoca to Istanbul. https://georeg.conference.ubbcluj.ro

As you know, the 34th IGC in Istanbul has been postponed from 2020 to 2021 as well. It will take place during week 33 (August 16 – 20). Our Commission will participate with a paper session within the Covid-19 topic and therefore be officially represented (contrary to the information in the last newsletter). Abstracts can be handed in until January 11, 2021. https://www.igc2020.org/en (for a session description see https://www.igc2020.org/en/BRIDGING-IN-A-COVIDIAN-WORLD-(OF-STILL)-INCREASING-INEQUALITIES.html).

Commission conferences 2022-2024

The Coronavirus has, of course, upset all our planning (not only yours!) and we are now working on the conferences during the next three years.

The IGU will celebrate its centenary in Paris in 2022 with a Regional conference, and we shall ask our French colleagues for proposals. Our colleagues from Malaysia (Firuza and Jamal) proposed to hold a conference in their country in 2023. The 35th IGC will take place in Ireland in 2024, and we shall discuss our annual conference with our Irish colleagues.

We received an offer from our Steering Committee member Kenneth Mantengu in Windhoek (Namibia). He suggested to organize our 2021 conference in Namibia. A further offer for 2021 came from Bangladesh (Dhaka). The new steering committee will discuss these offers and see how we can honour our colleagues’ initiatives.

Further Conferences

The 2021 EUGEO conference will be held in Prague from June 28 to July 1. Thanks to Covid-19, we missed the deadline to register for a session, but you can nevertheless participate (to date – 18 December – no list of sessions has yet been published on the congress website). Abstract submission deadline is January 31, 2021. https://www.eugeo2021.eu

5 Awards

Our former Commission chair, Prof. Etienne Nel (University of Otago, Dunedin), was recently bestowed the 2020 Distinguished New Zealand Geographer Award and Medal for his sustained contribution to Geography and development. Prior to his engagement in New Zealand, he devoted his work to issues of local economic development in various parts of Africa, where he was based at Rhodes University, Grahamstown. Apart from contributions to theory he studied policies and strategies with the aim to help the demarginalization of communities. His more recent investigations deal with the problems facing small and often isolated and marginalized towns in New Zealand.

We congratulate our friend and colleague Etienne on this distinction and hope he can continue to provide us with further insights into our core field of study.

6. Steering committee for 2020-2024

The virtual IGU General Assembly, held via Zoom on August 21, 2020, approved the commissions and task forces. We had handed in our proposal with a new chair (see below) in time. The approval means that this new Commission can be operational, although the IGU website still mentions Steve Déry as chair.

Chair:

Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Faculty of Science, Department of Geography

Marulićev trg 19/II,10000 Zagreb

Croatia

Web: www.pmf.unizg.hr/geog/en/borna.fuerst-bjelis

Phone: +385 1 4895 428

E-mail: bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr

Members:

Ass. Prof. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa

Deputy Dean (Undergraduate), Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Phone: 603-79675536/79675502

E-mail: firuza@um.edu.my

Prof. Ruth Kark

Department of Geography Faculty of Social Sciences

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905,

Israel

Telephone Home: 972-2-643-4820

Fax: 972-2-643-4820

E-mail: mskark@mscc.huji.ac.il

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto

Nara University of Education,

Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528

Japan

E-mail: daichizu@gmail.com

Prof. Olli Lehtonen

Department of Geographical and Historical Studies

University of Eastern Finland

Joensuu

Finland

olli.lehtonen@uef.fi

Prof. Shoba Shrestha,

Central Department of Geography,

Tribhuvan University,

Kathmandu

Nepal

Mobile: 9841294569

shova216@gmail.com

Prof. Márcio Valença

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, IIP · Departamento de Políticas Públicas

Natal

Brazil

marciovalenca10@gmail.com

Prof. Alain François Loukou,

Université Alassane Ouattara

Bouaké

Côte d’Ivoire

Alain_loukou@hotmail.com

Commission Secretary

Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber

Université de Fribourg

Département de Géosciences, Unité de Géographie

Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, Suisse

E-mail: walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch

Your address update:

Please help us to keep the address list updated by communicating your new address, phone and fax number and e-mail address to me (bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr) and to our secretary (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch).

Thank you!

I wish you a Happy New Year and stay healthy.

Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš, Commission chair

Commission Newsletter 2020 – 1

Editorial – Renewal proposal – Publications – Conferences – Steering Committee

As the editorial of this issue of our Newsletter, we wish to present our reflections on the present and future of the Commission. This text was written by Steve Déry and Walter Leimgruber, using reflections shared by members of the steering committee. Some parts were already included in the December 2019 issue. Here we share the long version.

1. Editorial: Marginality studies in a world of crisis

« Despite enormous progress the world still faces endemic issues of conflict, poverty and inequality, with unsustainable lifestyles, consumption and production patterns » (ISC, Action Plan). This statement from the ISC Action Plan drafted and voted in 2019 says it all. Even with a broader and increasing awareness of their impacts, gathering a large consensus in the various populations of the world, inequalities are not disappearing: they have increased to an extent never attained before in the history of humankind. And, even if the world has been put on a “pause” mode in the first half of 2020, they are still increasing, by the day. Inequalities measured in terms of revenues, inequalities of chances, inequalities in education, they bear testimony to an increase in marginality in most of the various population classes, save the richest. In our Covidian world – we can say that because all decisions made are related somehow to this pandemic situation -, power relations have been changed drastically: some have gained a lot of power; some who already have less, have lost even more. Given, that less decision power in a given system means an increasing marginality, the consequences for our environments are of various types at all levels, including drastic changes to our climates. This assessment brings us to an obvious conclusion: studies about marginality are necessary, and more importantly, for such studies to contribute to actions that reduce inequalities.

Our Commission started its work in 1982 by examining human activities in extreme natural environments: mountain regions and high latitude or boreal areas. The focus was extended in 1992 to marginal regions, thus allowing us to move from a regional to a thematic orientation. Our thematic foci have not changed, the world being still characterized by inequalities (even growing), power struggles and the efforts of the capitalist economy and its leaders to dominate the world. Even the ecological crisis, that has developed since World War II has only recently been recognized as being crucial for the future of mankind. In particular, the school strikes for climate (since 2018) have shown that the young generation, that so far has not been taken seriously (marginalized as are concerned political decisions), has become aware not only of their own societal situation but also of the threat humanity poses to the extra-human environment (also called ‘nature’). And the subsequent climate protest movement has seen an increasing solidarity between generations.

This is a radical shift in the perception of both environment and society and the processes occurring in both. While social inequalities have been with us through human history, recent events are producing deeper rifts than ever. In a way one feels thrown back to the 19th century when the working class had to fight for decent pay, working hours and conditions, while the entrepreneurs cashed in.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) demonstrate somehow an awareness by the international community to fight the marginalization of a large part of humanity: those underfed, those lacking access to clean water, those lacking access to minimum health care, the poor, the uneducated, but also the natural environment. However, the former were not attained, and the latter are likely to remain ‘paper tigers’ as well. The financial crisis of the early 21st century was an important event that demonstrated the failure of the neoliberal dogma and required a new way of thinking. The human society finds itself torn between ups and downs; since the mid-1970s we are experiencing the Gloomy Decades.

What does that mean for our Commission? We certainly can stick to most of its past focal concerns as the challenges have remained largely the same on all levels. However, its members should develop a sharper focus on specific themes for future conferences, as it has been done during the last mandate of the Commission, in trying to define a main theme for each of the next annual meetings. In this regard, our participation to the 2017 La Paz conference “Geographies for Peace” was relatively successful. It should be emphasized during the call for papers for all our Commission gatherings. “At a time of increased geopolitical complexity, should the science system address global inequalities, encouraging benefit sharing, global exchange and cooperation at all levels?” (ISC Action Plan, 2019). Our Commission can reply “yes”. We have done this now for several years. And our members are still committed, more than ever, to this task.

“But how does equitable cooperation and real social transformation come about and how, if at all, can it be initiated, fostered and steered? What are the possible levers, and who are the potential agents of change?” (ISC Action Plan, 2019). We would like to answer by saying: “us”. We cannot change the whole world by ourselves, but we can contribute to it and we can add up our contributions to create virtuous circles where we live, where we teach, with our research contributions. We have to make sure our results are useful for decision-makers and contribute to a real change. So, this is how we see the next four years of our Commission.

Global dynamics, local consequences and responses

The difficulties experienced by the global political system to tackle climate change, Brexit, the numerous manifestations around the world (gilets jaunes in France, Haiti, Hong Kong, etc.), as well as the economic war started by the current US administration, demonstrate that the neoliberal system has never been capable of solving any problem we are confronted with, especially the biggest: the reduction of inequalities between the so-called developed world and the Global South, taken globally. More likely, it has been demonstrated again and again, that this system is part of the problem. Some demonstrations even show that it is the problem! Similarly, national and local differences are still a critical issue in the dynamic world of which we are a part – the ‘global village’ is more a myth than a reality and has yet to materialize, even with an ever increasing social-media world. The unrest and revolutions that have rocked the Arab world since early 2011 demonstrate that even long-standing political systems are not stable, because the peoples do not support them. The notion of kleptocracy, which has appeared in this context, is ample proof of the division between rulers and the ruled.

It is within this fluid environment of change, isolation, integration, marginalisation and development that this commission believes academic attention should be focussed, using its two tools of predilection: teaching and researching. Our focus is to view globalization and regional / local development as interrelated processes, which might overlap with the defined niches of other commissions. Therefore, we see our centres of attention as being:

- the critical evaluation of the consequences of globalization on people and places, particularly on areas and people outside the mainstream, and the localised responses catalysed by globalization,

- the relations between environmental stress (ecological footprint, climate change, etc.) and people’s actions in a globalized world-system,

- direct and indirect links between marginality and globality relating to people and places, especially in terms of accessibility, wherever places are located, and

- how, in an increasingly interlinked world, regional and local (marginal) cultures can survive and serve as models for the survival of humanity.

- Within this context, three fields are of particular relevance: the drifting apart of society, environmental justice, and resource conservation and exploitation. They all contain an important ethical component.

Work done over the past years has revealed that the concept of marginality must be viewed from various perspectives as it is a complex and dynamic phenomenon embedded in power relations. While marginalization tends to increase with the current socioeconomic and political processes of globalization and deregulation, it is never a unidirectional process, as a look back into history since the Industrial Revolution demonstrates. It is also a relative concept that depends on the prevailing socioeconomic and political systems and on the scale of observation (a village may be marginal within a large region which itself is not marginal at all, or conversely). Perceptions of the physical characteristics of an area also are subject to change due to peoples’ evaluation over time, i.e., a physically perceived marginal region can become economically developed if its potential is recognised, and they can become depressed again when human preferences and/or other socioeconomic circumstances change (e.g. resource depletion, natural catastrophe).

The research, teaching and publications of the IGU Commission on “Marginalization, globalization, and regional and local response” emphasize the need for further in-depth consideration of continuing and new issues of the spatial aspects of marginalized peoples, the environments they inhabit, the impact of globalization and the regional and local responses which these considerations help to catalyse. These issues are complex, which stresses that further attention is required in order to delineate the nature of these societal problems and the potential nature of new policy and solutions that need to be considered. Especially, as researchers we must question ourselves about our own role in contributing not only to the understanding of the issues described, but also to solving the problems, and it is where teaching is also crucial.

We wish you all a wonderful time wherever you are! Keep healthy!

Steve Déry, Commission Chair

Walter Leimgruber, Commission Secretary

2. Proposal to the IGU for the renewal of the Commission

i. Proposed committee for 2021-24

Chair: Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Secretary: Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber, Université de Fribourg, Suisse

Members:

Dr. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa, Department of Geography, University of Malaya, Malaysia

Prof. Ruth Kark, Department of Geography, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto, Geography, Nara University of Education, Japan

Dr. Olli Lehtonen, Dpt of Geographical and Historical Studies, U. of Eastern Fin., Finland

Prof. Bishwo Shrestha, Nepal

Prof. Março Valença, Brazil

Alain François Loukou, Côte d’Ivoire

One or two more members will be named by the end of the IGU Congress (Istanbul, 2021). Members of the steering committee need to be approved by a general assembly, that will be held normally in Istanbul in August 2021.

ii. Present objectives of the commission and proposed objectives for 2020-24,

A. The name of the Commission

We propose to continue with the name: “IGU Commission on Marginalization, Globalization and Regional and Local Response”

B. A concise statement of the mission of the Commission

The mission of the Commission is to research marginality and the processes of marginalization from different perspectives and with a geographical basis. The main focus is to better understand multiscalar relations between the globalization process and how marginality evolves at the local and regional levels. Moreover, we seek to improve our understanding of local and regional responses to different forms of marginality and marginalization processes.

Given that, during the last four years, inequalities and marginality have increased instead of receding, the commission intends to continue to follow the objectives that were in its focus already in this period, that is:

1. To further the understanding of marginality and the processes of marginalization in our globalized world, through the study and analysis of the forces responsible for the dynamics and structures of marginality at various scales. They will include, among other variables, issues of ethnicity, technology, gender, social structure and the environment.

2. To analyze marginality as the result of power relations within societies, more precisely of human perceptions and decisions, leading to the understanding of the role of the various agents in those processes, and their response to prevailing conditions.

  1. To develop comparative approaches in order to identify various types of marginality and to put them into perspective and assess their role in an increasingly globalized world. Emphasis in particular needs to be placed on the experience of the Global South.

  2. To study policy/institutional/community responses to economic and societal problems where we can find marginal people – especially where they form clusters, at various scales in relation to local, regional and societal development; this includes to study human responses to global change, and their implications for marginalization.

  3. The development of theoretical and methodological tools of understanding of marginality in itself, as well as for the processes of marginalization and demarginalization.

  4. To improve the role of research, education and teaching in decision-making/politics in order to reduce inequalities et and marginality.

The use and development of appropriate theory and methodology is to be involved in each of the above.

iii. Five major list of achievements for 2016-20 and five major activities to be undertaken during 2020-24.

A. Achievements for 2016-2020

1) Number of members. Our Commission counts now 352 members (January 2020), an increase of 15% from 306 members in December 2015, including 36 from developing Asia and 13 from Africa.

2) Conferences and scientific meetings: We have held six scientific activities (each can count as an achievement): 2016 (2), 2017 (1), 2018 (1), 2019 (2)

3) Publications: We started to edit a book series, published by Springer: “Perspectives on Geographical Marginality”. Since 2016, we have published four books. Each can also be seen as one achievement in itself.

4) Networking: We have published two Newsletter per year from 2016 to 2019 (total = 8) + several Newsflash bulletins to keep in touch with our members, depending of the needs.

5) Networking between commissions: In 2018 (Quebec), we have successfully organised panels with the Commission on “Regional development” and more talks were done with this commission and also the commission on “Geography of governance” for the 2020 conference (Romania) and congress (Istanbul). For now, these conversations and potential organisations have been postponed to next year (2021).

B. Activities for 2020-2024

1) One of the Commission’s special efforts is and will be to enlarge the participation of Geographers from the Developing World. This has been possible to a limited extent only when the IGU provided the commissions with adequate funding. Any reduction of these subsidies will make such initiatives impossible in the future. Moreover, in this wake, due to the lack of funding, it is also quite difficult for colleagues of poorer countries (like Lao PDR, Cambodia, or sub-Saharan countries) to organise any scientific meeting. Our last meeting (2019) in Nepal has helped to enlarge the participation from South Asian countries.

2) Conferences and scientific meetings: we plan to hold seven or eight scientific activities during the next four-year plan.

- 2020: virtual conference, organized by Laval University (Quebec) in December

- 2021: Romania (Commission conference) and Istanbul (IGU congress)

*Note: we also have commitments from Namibia and Bangladesh for commission conferences to be held between 2021 and 2023. The current Covidian pandemic has changed our plans. The next steering committee will make decisions on this matter.

- 2022: Paris (IGU regional congress)

- 2023: Malaysia (Commission conference)

- 2024: Ireland (IGU congress)

3) Publications: Two new books are expected to be published in our Series in 2020 or early 2021. And at least two more are planned for the rest of 2021-2024.

4) Networking between members: We plan to continue to send two Newsletters per year (June and December) as well as several Newsflashes to our members, in order to keep them informed of the various activities organised by the Commission or some of its members.

5) Networking between commission: We plan to continue the discussions and work with commissions which objectives are similar to our own, depending of the opportunities.

3. Publications

The fifth and sixth volumes of our series are in the production process and should be published in autumn. Cooperation with Springer continues to be excellent. We are also preparing further books, looking forward to your announcements of single/double author or edited volumes. If you have a project, please contact a member of the series editors:

Borna Fuerst-Bjelis (bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr), Walter Leimgruber (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch), Etienne Nel (etienne.nel@otago.ac.nz), Stanko Pelc (stanko.pelc@guest.arnes.si).

Publications signalled by members

No material received. Please send information to the secretary to be included with the December Newsletter. Members are keen on being updated on your scientific activity. Thank you.

4. Conferences

As we are now writing in July 2020, still under the impact of the current Coronavirus, the following information concerning physical meetings is subject to a return of our society to some sort of normalcy.

Commission conference in 2020

Because of the Coronavirus pandemic, both our pre-congress conference in Romania and the IGC in Istanbul have been cancelled and postponed to next year. As a small compensation, we are going to organize a virtual conference in December. This is a spontaneous idea and we have no details as yet, but you will receive information via NewsFlash as soon as possible.

Commission conferences 2021

As a consequence of Covid-19 and the general lockdown, travel restrictions, and closed borders, also our Commission’s pre-congress meeting has been postponed. Our Romanian colleague Raularian Rusu of Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) will receive us during week 32, August 8/9 – 13, 2021. The programme will include paper sessions, local tours, a one-day field trip and a business meeting. The timing is such that participants will be able to reach Istanbul on time. There are direct flights from Cluj-Napoca to Istanbul.

As you know, the 34th IGC in Istanbul has been postponed from 2020 to 2021 as well. It will take place during week 33 (August 16 – 20). Our Commission will participate with a paper session within the Covid-19 topic and therefore be officially represented (contrary to the information in the last newsletter).

Commission conferences 2022-2024

The Coronavirus has, of course, upset all our planning (not only yours!) and we are now working on the conferences during the next three years.

The IGU will celebrate its centenary in Paris in 2022 with a Regional conference, and we shall ask our French colleagues for proposals. Finally, the 35th IGC will take place in Ireland in 2024, and we shall discuss our annual conference with our Irish colleagues.

Our colleagues from Malaysia (Firuza and Jamal) proposed to hold a conference in their country in 2023.

The 35th IGC will take place in Ireland in 2024, and we shall discuss our annual conference with our Irish colleagues.

We received an offer from our Steering Committee member Kenneth Mantengu in Windhoek (Namibia). He suggested to organize our 2021 conference in Namibia. A further offer for 2021 came from Bangladesh (Dhaka). The next steering committee will discuss these offers and see how we can honour our colleagues’ initiatives.

5. Steering committee for 2016-2020

Chair of the commission

Prof. Steve Déry,

Université Laval

Département de géographie

2405, rue de la Terrasse, Québec, QUÉBEC

Canada, G1V 0A6

Phone: 1-418-656-2131 poste 5107

E-mail: Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca

Steering committee members

Dr. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa, Senior Lecturer

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Phone: 79675536

E-mail: firuza@um.edu.my

Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Faculty of Science, Department of Geography

Marulićev trg 19/II,10000 Zagreb

Croatia

Web: www.pmf.unizg.hr/geog/en/borna.fuerst-bjelis

Phone: +385 1 4895 428

E-mail: bornafb@geog.pmf.unizg.hr

Prof. Ruth Kark

Department of Geography Faculty of Social Sciences

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905,

Israel

Telephone Home: 972-2-643-4820

Fax: 972-2-643-4820

E-mail: mskark@mscc.huji.ac.il

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto, Associate Professor of Geography

Nara University of Education,

Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528

Japan

E-mail: daichizu@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Kenneth Matengu, Pro-Vice Chancellor: Research, Innovation and Development

University of Namibia,

340 Mandume Ndemufayo Ave Pionierspark, Windhoek,

Namibia

Phone: +264 61 206 3944

Fax: +264 61 242644

E-mail: kmatengu@unam.na

Dr. Toivo Muilu

Natural Resources Institute Finland (professor)

Department of Geography (adjunct professor)

Po Box 413

FI-90014 University of Oulu

Finland

Phone: +358 29 532 6722

E-mail: toivo.muilu@luke.fi

Dr. Catherine Robinson, adjunct associate professor

University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD 4072,

Australia

Phone: +61 7 3365 1111

E-mail: Catherine.Robinson@csiro.au

Prof. Claudio Urra Coletti

Instituto de Geografía

Facultad de Filosofía y Letras

Universidad Nacional de Cuyo

Mendoza – Argentina

Phone:

E-mail: urra73@gmail.com

Commission Secretary

Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber

Université de Fribourg

Département de Géosciences, Unité de Géographie

Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, Suisse

Phone: ++41 26 300 90 10

E-mail: walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch

Your address update:

Please help us to keep the address list updated by communicating your new address, phone and fax number and e-mail address to me (Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca) and to our secretary (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch).

Thank you!

Commission Newsletter 2019 – 2

Introduction – Publications – Conferences – Steering Committee

Education: a top priority to trigger demarginalization processes

“But how does equitable cooperation and real social transformation come about and how, if at all, can it be initiated, fostered and steered? What are the possible levers, and who are the potential agents of change?”

(ISC Action Plan, 2019).

As members of the IGU Commission who are researching marginality issues, we would like to answer the last question in the ISC Action Plan question by saying: “us”. We cannot change the whole world on our own, but we can contribute to it and our contributions can be added up to create virtuous circles where we live as citizens, where we teach, with our research contributions, with our social involvement. All over the world, scientists are increasingly gathering in different ways to assert the relevance of their work to inform current socioeconomic debates. But we have to make sure our results are useful for decision-makers and contribute to a real change. We have to be aware that the knowledge we are producing is targeted for appropriation: it is a tool of empowerment, that can increase the power of anyone, including of those who already monopolize most of it (cf Lacoste, 1976 and 2012; Raffestin, 1980 and 2019).

The difficulties experienced by the global political system to tackle climate change, Brexit, the numerous protests around the world (gilets jaunes in France, Haiti, Hong Kong, etc.), as well as the economic war started by the current US administration, demonstrate that the neoliberal system has never been capable of solving any problem we are confronted with, especially the biggest of them: the reduction of global inequalities between the so-called developed world and the global South. More likely, it has been demonstrated again and again, that this system is part of the problem. Some demonstrations even show that it is the problem!

It is within this fluid environment of change, isolation, integration, marginalisation and development that this commission believes academic attention should be focussed, using its two tools of predilection: teaching and researching. These two tools must always be used keeping in mind that they can (must?) be used for action: our own actions; those of our students who may become decision makers in our world at various levels; actions of people that we have researched. Wherever our endeavours bring us, we bear a huge responsibility regarding the use of the knowledge we produce and transmit.

In this editorial, I want to stress and insist on the role of education in general and teaching in particular. Most of us are teachers, sometimes more often than researchers, and it is probably with this role that we can have the greatest impact in decision-making/politics in order to reduce inequalities and marginality.

I wish you all a wonderful time wherever you are!

Steve Déry, Commission Chair

References

LACOSTE, Yves (2012) La géographie, ça sert, d'abord, à faire la guerre. Paris, La Découverte (1st edition = 1976; Paris, Maspéro).

RAFFESTIN, Claude (2019) Pour une géographie du pouvoir. Lyon, ENS (2nd edition). (1st edition = 1980; Paris, LITEC).

Publications

The fifth and sixth volumes of our series are in preparation, we hope to publish them next year. This is due to the authors’ speedy work and the excellent collaboration with Springer. We are waiting for the announcements of single/double author or edited volumes. If you have a project, please contact a member of the series editors:

Borna Fuerst-Bjelis (bornafb@geog.pmf.hr), Walter Leimgruber (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch), Etienne Nel (etienne.nel@otago.ac.nz), Stanko Pelc (stanko.pelc@guest.arnes.si).

Publications signalled by members

Books:

Chand R. (Volume Editor, 2017): Hindi Vishwakosh Vol.1 Prithvi Evam Bhugol. New Delhi, India: 3 Kendriya Hindi Sansthan & Sasta Sahitya Mandal Prakashan (in Hindi)

Bhat P.K. & Chand R. (2018), Landscape Ecology and Land use in the Higher Himalaya: A Case Study of Gori Ganga basin. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

Tripura C.S & Chand R. (2019), Socio-Cultural Dynamics and Livelihood Strategies of Tripura Tribe, Scholars’ Press

Research papers

Chand R. (2017), Social Ecology of Immigrant Population and Changing Urban Landscape of Thimphu, Bhutan, Journal of Urban and Regional Studies on Contemporary India, The Center for Contemporary India Studies, Hiroshima University, 4(1), 1–12

Tripura C.S. & Chand R. (2018), Jhum Cultivation and Changing Livelihood Strategay of Tripura Tribe, Longthrai Valley, Tripura, in: Sati V.P. and Lalmalasawmzauva (eds.), Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, Today and Tommorow’s printer and publishers, New Delhi, pp 216-236

Pant. B.R. & Chand R. (2018), Tribal and Non Tribal Urban Population in the Indian Himalayan region: some spects, in: Sharma. K.D. and K. Surjeet Singh (eds.), Massive Urbanization: Town Planning, Pedagogy and Research, Institute for Spatial Planning and Environmental Research, Panchkula, Haryana, pp.161-182

Pant B.R., Chand R. & Taragi R.C.S ( 2018), Urbanizationion the Indian Himalayan Region (1901-2011), in: Rawat ,M.S.S. et.al. (eds.), Environmental, Resources and Development of the Indian Himalaya, Transmedia Publications, Srinagar, pp.79-110

Pant B.R. & Chand R. ( 2019,: Demographic Characteristics of Urban centres and Urbanization in Uttarakhand, in: K.C. Purohit et al.(eds.), The Himalaya: At the Cross road of Environment and Development, Winsar Publishing, Dehradun.,pp 101-135

Chand B., Kuniya J. C. & Chand, R. (2019), Ambient Air Quality and Its Sources Surrounding to Hydropower Projects in the Satluj Basin, Northwestern Himalaya, India, MAPAN, Journal of Metrology Society of India, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12647-019-00320-0

Conferences

Commission conference in Nepal, 2019

The report on the conference has been sent out with the first NewsFlash on January 21. In a nutshell, it was an excellent opportunity to meet up with our Nepali colleagues who were eager to participate and organized an excellent and adventurous field trip.

We also held a business meeting where, among other items, it was decided to ask the IGU that we can continue our work. To this effect, we received several supporting messages, particularly from Mendoza in Argentine. Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš will be proposed as new chair of the Commission for the next period.

Commission conferences in 2020

The 34th IGC will take place next year in Istanbul (August 17 – 21). Our Commission will try to participate within this larger event, but we shall also organize our own smaller meeting. It will be organized by our Romanian colleague Raularian Rusu of Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) during the week of August 9/10 – 14. The programme will include paper sessions, local tours, a one-day field trip and a business meeting. The timing is such that participants will be able to reach Istanbul on time. There are direct flights from Cluj-Napoca to Istanbul.

Our Commission will not be officially represented in Istanbul as for some reason the session proposal did not reach the organizing committee in time. The general topic of the IGU Congress is “Geography: bridging the continents”. The steering committee invites members who are going to participate to send their abstracts (extended deadline: 28 January) to a session that convenes best to their topic. We are sorry for this inconvenience.

Commission conferences 2021-2024

We have to plan ahead for the next period of office, and we already received an offer from our Steering Committee member Kenneth Mantengu in Windhoek (Namibia). He suggested to organize our 2021 conference in Namibia. A further offer came for 2021 came from Bangladesh (Dhaka), whereas our colleagues from Malaysia proposed to hold a conference in their country in 2023. The IGU will celebrate its centenary in Paris in 2022 with a Regional conference, and we shall ask our French colleagues for proposals. Finally, the 35th IGC will take place in Ireland in 2024, and we shall discuss our annual conference with our Irish colleagues.

Other conferences of interest

2020 Annual Conference of the Regional Science Association (RSA), Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 17-20: “Transformations: Relational Spaces, beyond Urban and Rural” (details under https://www.regionalstudies.org/events/2020rsaannualconf/)

Steering committee for 2016-2020

Chair of the commission

Prof. Steve Déry,

Université Laval

Département de géographie

2405, rue de la Terrasse, Québec, QUÉBEC

Canada, G1V 0A6

Phone: 1-418-656-2131 poste 5107

E-mail: Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca

Steering committee members

Dr. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa, Senior Lecturer

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Phone: 79675536

E-mail: firuza@um.edu.my

Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Faculty of Science, Department of Geography

Marulićev trg 19/II,10000 Zagreb

Croatia

Web: www.pmf.unizg.hr/geog/borna.fuerst-bjelis

Phone: +385 1 4895 428

E-mail: bornafb@geog.pmf.hr

Prof. Ruth Kark

Department of Geography Faculty of Social Sciences

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905,

Israel

Telephone Home: 972-2-643-4820

Fax: 972-2-643-4820

E-mail: mskark@mscc.huji.ac.il

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto, Associate Professor of Geography

Nara University of Education,

Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528

Japan

E-mail: daichizu@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Kenneth Matengu, Pro-Vice Chancellor: Research, Innovation and Development

University of Namibia,

340 Mandume Ndemufayo Ave Pionierspark, Windhoek,

Namibia

Phone: +264 61 206 3944

Fax: +264 61 242644

E-mail: kmatengu@unam.na

Dr. Toivo Muilu

Natural Resources Institute Finland (professor)

Department of Geography (adjunct professor)

Po Box 413

FI-90014 University of Oulu

Finland

Phone: +358 29 532 6722

E-mail: toivo.muilu@luke.fi

Dr. Catherine Robinson, adjunct associate professor

University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD 4072,

Australia

Phone: +61 7 3365 1111

E-mail: Catherine.Robinson@csiro.au

Prof. Claudio Urra Coletti

Instituto de Geografía

Facultad de Filosofía y Letras

Universidad Nacional de Cuyo

Mendoza – Argentina

Phone:

E-mail: urra73@gmail.com

Commission Secretary

Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber

Université de Fribourg

Département de Géosciences, Unité de Géographie

Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, Suisse

Phone: ++41 26 300 90 10

E-mail: walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch

Your address update:

Please help us to keep the address list updated by communicating your new address, phone and fax number and e-mail address to me (Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca) and to our secretary (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch).

Commission Newsletter 2019 – 1

Introduction – Publications – Conferences – Steering Committee

Introduction: The word of the Commission chair

Dear all,

This summer edition of our Newsletter is to remind you of the work that lies ahead of us, both as researchers on marginality topics and as members of the IGU Commission on Marginalization, Globalization, and Regional and Local Responses. In 2020, the next International Geographical Congress in Istanbul will decide on the renewal of all Commissions and Task Forces. This is an important date for us as it will be decisive for our future collaboration.

As for the first, I invite you to reflect on what has been done and achieved during the past decade or so. Some of you have used the word “marginality” as a keyword in their research. How have your ideas and your work evolved in this field? What is different or new in the way you have been using this concept? Did you try new methods to assess it? Die you target new people? I invite you to reflect on these and other questions, either in short communications to the next Newsletter (December 2019) or in papers and communications during the next conferences of our Commission.

As for the second point, as members of the Commission, it is our duty now to reflect on our achievements during the past three years and decide upon our future. Is the work of our Commission still relevant? If so, why? We shall very soon (in August) have to answer these questions when deciding about the renewal of the Commission. What are our strengths, where are our weaknesses (the potential for improvement)? The number and diversity of our members is certainly a very positive point (more than 300 from 56 countries). Besides: Which will be our activities during the next four years (2020-2024)? I invite you to share your thoughts with the Steering Committee. Please send your comments, ideas, questions and proposals to Walter (our Secretary) and me; every single proposal will be welcome. We also appreciate your eventual commitment to participate in the next Steering Committee (2020-2024) if the Commission is to continue its activities.

Myself, I will step down as Commission Chair (according to IGU rules, my time is up), but I will continue to be an active member and contribute to the issues that are key to our work.

I am looking forward to receiving your input in the very near future!

Kind regards,

Steve Déry, Commission Chair

Publications

The fourth volume of our series “Perspectives on Geographical Marginalization” has been published this year. Rural Areas Between Regional Needs and Global Challenges. Transformation in Rural Space has been edited by Walter Leimgruber and Chang-yi David Chang and is devoted to rural issues. The next two new volumes are already in preparation.

Collaboration with Springer is excellent. They would also welcome single author or further edited volumes. If you have a project, please contact a member of the series editors:

Borna Fuerst-Bjelis (bornafb@geog.pmf.hr), Walter Leimgruber (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch), Etienne Nel (etienne.nel@otago.ac.nz), Stanko Pelc (stanko.pelc@guest.arnes.si).

Publications signalled by members

No information received.

A reminder: You are certainly not idle and, apart from your normal work you continue to publish papers, books and book chapters. We would like to know more and be able to inform all members of the Commission about your literary activities; please send a short mail with the details of your publications to the secretary as a source of information of our other members, your colleagues.

Also: if you would like to share particular ideas on our topic, we invite you to prepare short texts to be included in the newsletter. We can try to upgrade it to a sort of discussion forum on marginality and globalization issues.

Conferences

EUGEO conference 2019

The Association of Geographical societies in Europe (EUGEO) held its bi-annual conference together with the annual conference of Irish Geographers in the University of Galway, Ireland from May 15-19, 2019. Our Commission had seized upon the occasion and proposed a regional thematic session on ‘Marginality in Europe’. The three convenors (Stanko Pelc, Fátima Velez and Walter Leimgruber) managed to set up two paper sessions with the following eight papers:

Ø Stanko Pelc (University of Primorska), Marginality in Europe - Where, Why and When?

Ø Robert Szmytkie; Agnieszka Latocha; Dominik Sikorski; Przemysław Tomczak; Katarzyna Kajdanek & Paulina Miodońska; (University of Wrocław, Poland), Revival of the marginal region. Economic development in rural areas of the Kłodzko region (Sudetes, Poland)

Ø Krystian Heffner & Agnieszka Latocha (University of Economics in Katowice, Poland), Spatial, economic and social marginalization of rural areas in the Polish-Czech transborder region

Ø Oana-Ramona Ilovan; Kinga Xénia Havadi-Nagy; Silviu Medeșan & Emanuel-Cristian Adorean (Babes- Bolyai University - Cluj-Napoca & Colectiv A, Cluj-Napoca, Romania ), Urban Planning, Local Development and Marginalization in Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Ø Fátima Velez de Castro (University of Coimbra, Portugal), Spaces of art and counter-art in the walls. Understanding the marginality of graffiti in a World Heritage area.

Ø Walter Leimgruber (University of Fribourg, Switzerland), A second nature: Regional Nature Parks to bridge the mental gap between humans and nature

Ø Éva Máté (University of Pécs, Hungary), Adapt or fail? Local reactions on perforation processes in rural Hungary

Ø Perrine Devleeshouwer; Marie Gisclard & François Charrier (LRDE – INRA, France), Animal Health management in a marginal context: the pork and deli meat sector in Corsica

The papers were well received by an audience that varied between 10 and 25 persons. Given the tight schedule, discussion time was unfortunately very limited.

The Galway meeting was an attempt to organize a regional meeting. Being part of a larger conference, we enhanced our visibility and even managed to recruit new members. Such opportunities should be seized not only in Europe but elsewhere. Marginality issues occur everywhere and have to be dealt with on all continents. We strongly recommend members to organize similar conferences in conjunction with larger events.

Commission conference in Nepal, 2019

The information regarding the 2019 Commission conference in Nepal has been sent to all members in May, albeit with some technical problems for which I apologize. Our member and colleague Professor Pushkar Pradhan of Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu is the chief organizer, assisted by his colleague Professor Pushpa Sharma.

The programme comprises paper sessions and local excursions (December 8 – 10), followed by a field trip to the Pokhara region west of Kathmandu (December 11 – 14). The conference theme is “Natural disasters, marginalized regions and labour migration.” To register, please follow the guidelines below (from Pushkar’s circular):

Interested participants should submit their early-registration forms and title and abstract of paper (≈200 words) on or before September 30, 2019 (especially for those who need earlier participation confirmation). The deadline for final registration with title and abstract is October 31, 2019.

All registered participants should send their full paper on or before Friday, November 8 2019. The application form for registration can be sent by electronic mail or airmail. It is also available at the following website:

https://sites.google.com/view/igugeographic almarginality/geographical-marginality

Commission conferences in 2020

The 34th IGC will take place next year in Istanbul (August 17 – 21). Our Commission will try to participate within this larger event, but we shall also organize our own smaller meeting. It will be organized by our Romanian colleague Raularian Rusu of Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) during the week of August 9/10 – 14. The programme will include paper sessions, local tours, a one-day field trip and a business meeting. The timing is such that participants will be able to reach Istanbul on time. There are direct flights from Cluj-Napoca to Istanbul.

Our participation in Istanbul is currently being discussed by the steering committee. The general topic of the IGU Congress is “Geography: bridging the continents”. For our specific meeting, in this wake, we are reflecting on the topic: “Seeing beyond the color of the wave”, an invitation to look beyond the surface of current social movements, like in Hong Kong, the French “gilets jaunes” and the various other “waves” that have occurred all over the world. A longer abstract will be sent soon as a NewsFlash.

Steering committee for 2016-2020

Chair of the commission

Prof. Steve Déry,

Université Laval

Département de géographie

2405, rue de la Terrasse, Québec, QUÉBEC

Canada, G1V 0A6

Phone: 1-418-656-2131 poste 5107

E-mail: Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca

Steering committee members

Dr. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa, Senior Lecturer

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Phone: 79675536

E-mail: firuza@um.edu.my

Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Faculty of Science, Department of Geography

Marulićev trg 19/II,10000 Zagreb

Croatia

Web: www.pmf.unizg.hr/geog/borna.fuerst-bjelis

Phone: +385 1 4895 428

E-mail: bornafb@geog.pmf.hr

Prof. Ruth Kark

Department of Geography Faculty of Social Sciences

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905,

Israel

Telephone Home: 972-2-643-4820

Fax: 972-2-643-4820

E-mail: mskark@mscc.huji.ac.il

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto, Associate Professor of Geography

Nara University of Education,

Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528

Japan

E-mail: daichizu@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Kenneth Matengu, Pro-Vice Chancellor: Research, Innovation and Development

University of Namibia,

340 Mandume Ndemufayo Ave Pionierspark, Windhoek,

Namibia

Phone: +264 61 206 3944

Fax: +264 61 242644

E-mail: kmatengu@unam.na

Dr. Toivo Muilu

Natural Resources Institute Finland (professor)

Department of Geography (adjunct professor)

Po Box 413

FI-90014 University of Oulu

Finland

Phone: +358 29 532 6722

E-mail: toivo.muilu@luke.fi

Dr. Catherine Robinson, adjunct associate professor

University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD 4072,

Australia

Phone: +61 7 3365 1111

E-mail: Catherine.Robinson@csiro.au

Prof. Claudio Urra Coletti

Instituto de Geografía

Facultad de Filosofía y Letras

Universidad Nacional de Cuyo

Mendoza – Argentina

Phone:

E-mail: urra73@gmail.com

Commission Secretary

Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber

Université de Fribourg

Département de Géosciences, Unité de Géographie

Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, Suisse

Phone: ++41 26 300 90 10

E-mail: walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch

Your address update:

Please help us to keep the address list updated by communicating your new address, phone and fax number and e-mail address to me (Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca) and to our secretary (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch).

Commission Newsletter 20182

Welcome – Publications – Conferences – Steering Committee – Address update

WELCOME

Marginalité proche, marginalité éloignée

par Steve Déry

Département de géographie, Université Laval

Loin. C’est un qualificatif qui est souvent utilisé pour parler de la marginalité et des personnes marginales. Pourtant, à tous les jours, l’actualité nous rappelle que cette marginalité est encore plus souvent très près de nous, même dans les pays dits industrialisés et riches, même parmi les segments de la population privilégiés. Par exemple, le Japon est à certains égards un pays symbole d’accomplissement et de succès économique et social à partir des années 1970 et 1980 : ses systèmes de santé et d’éducation sont parmi les plus performants au monde et les résultats, comme par exemple pour l’espérance de vie, qui atteint en moyenne 85,5 ans en 2018 (89 ans pour les femmes) (CIA Worldfactbook Japan), fort probants. Malgré ces développements généraux sur les plans socioéconomiques, qui témoignent de moyennes nationales, la situation des femmes y reste préoccupante à plusieurs égards – sauf pour l’espérance de vie bien sûr -, surtout depuis qu’il a été porté à l’attention du public la discrimination systématique – et même systémique! – à leur endroit à la Tokyo Medecine University « où les résultats des examens ont été manipulés pour favoriser les étudiants masculins » et exclure les femmes (traduction libre) (McCurry, 2018, The Guardian).

Sur un registre différent, à l’Université Laval, à Québec cette fois, un concours pour éventuellement engager de nouveaux professeurs en 2019 était… strictement réservé aux « personnes s’identifiant comme appartenant aux quatre groupes désignés (…), soit les femmes, les autochtones, les personnes en situation de handicap, et celles appartenant aux minorités visibles »[1]. L’objectif avoué est d’améliorer le ratio de ces quatre groupes parmi l’ensemble des professeurs. Il s’agit bien sûr d’une excellente mesure qu’il faut applaudir. En même temps, une mise en perspective dans le temps suscite des questions sur les raisons d’un tel besoin, alors que des mesures de discrimination positive (à compétences égales, des femmes, des personnes en situations de handicap ou des personnes de couleur sont choisies) sont déjà en place depuis de très nombreuses années. Comment est-il encore possible, en 2019, que les femmes, les Noirs ou les autochtones du Québec, ou même ailleurs au Canada, aux États-Unis, en Europe ou au Japon, n’aient pas accès à ces emplois de la même manière que leurs collègues masculins, au point que nous soyions obligés d’ouvrir un concours strictement réservé? Au minimum, cette situation nous dit que ces groupes au Québec – et très certainement ailleurs au Canada, car on y retrouve les mêmes règles de discrimination positive– continuent de vivre des situations de marginalité plus ou moins profonde, car même certaines parmi les privilégiés – celles avec un doctorat – ne sont pas traitées avec équité lorsque vient le temps de reconnaitre leurs connaissances, leurs habiletés et leurs expériences.

D’un point de vue conceptuel et plus théorique, en quoi ces deux exemples sont-ils intéressants pour nous aider à mieux situer la marginalité? Ils nous convient surtout, peut-être, à être davantage prudents dans l’utilisation du vocabulaire. Les exemples ci-dessus nous rappellent que la marginalité s’inscrit d’abord dans les relations de pouvoir, relations qui varient selon le système de référence. Une femme noire peut bien avoir obtenu un doctorat, ce qui en fait une personne privilégiée dans l’ensemble de la société, mais si dans le monde scientifique son pouvoir reste faible du fait qu’elle est une femme de couleur, elle vit alors de la marginalité. Dans le premier exemple, la discrimination envers les femmes japonaises constitue une décision volontaire prise par des personnes en autorité, basée sur des préjugés sexistes. Ils contribuent à réduire l’éventail des possibles pour les femmes, à réduire leur capacité d’éducation, et donc, au final, rend beaucoup plus difficile pour elles le gain de pouvoir dans les différents systèmes auxquelles elles participent : bref, elles vivent un processus de marginalisation. Dans le deuxième exemple, on se rend compte que, malgré plusieurs années de discrimination positive, le niveau de marginalité de certains groupes reste toujours élevé car leur poids parmi les diplômés ne se reflète pas parmi ceux qui obtiennent des postes et la discrimination positive reste nécessaire en 2019 pour continuer à réduire leur niveau de marginalité.

Bref, marginalisation et discrimination représentent des concepts non-équivalents et, parfois, comme ici, complémentaires à la compréhension d’une situation. La discrimination témoigne de pouvoir inégaux dans la société. Si certains peuvent se permettre de « discriminer » les autres, ceux qu’ils choisissent de discriminer, c’est qu’ils ont le pouvoir de le faire. Cela témoigne déjà de relations inégales et d’un niveau de marginalité relativement élevé pour certains groupes. Mais aussi, la discrimination peut contribuer à diminuer encore plus les options de ces groupes, par exemple pour accéder à l’éducation, au savoir en général, à l’acquisition d’habiletés, d’information, ce qui peut ainsi réduire d’autant plus leur pouvoir dans le ou les systèmes auxquels ils participent. Réduire la capacité de ce groupe à prendre des décisions constitue un processus de marginalisation.

Peut-être, après ces réflexions, le message que je souhaite passer pour la nouvelle année à peine commencée, est le suivant : lorsque vous étudierez la marginalité des zones éloignées, pensez aussi à porter attention à la marginalité qui peut se tenir tout juste à côté de vous.

Steve Déry, Québec et Ottawa, 7 janvier 2019

Intimate and remote marginalities

Steve Déry, Department of geography, Laval University

Remote. It is often an adjective used to talk about marginality and marginal people. Although, everyday news is a reminder to us that marginality is still often very close at hand, if not intimate, even in industrialised and rich countries; even within privileged segments of the population. For example, Japan is to some extent a symbol of economic and social accomplishment and success since the 1970s and 1980s: the health care and education systems are among the best performing in the world, and results, such as for life expectancy – 85.5 years at birth on average for 2018 (89 years for women; CIA World factbook Japan), – are convincing. Though, these general trends are bearing testimony to national averages; and the situation of women remains preoccupying to many extents – save for life expectancy -, especially since a systematic – and even systemic! – discrimination towards women has been brought to public attention: the “Tokyo Medical University had manipulated exam scores to favour male candidates” and exclude women (McCurry, 2018, The Guardian).

On a different level, at Laval University in Quebec City, a call to create a pool of candidates has been opened to eventually hire new professors in 2019, a call first opened … only to members of the four designated groups: women, autochthonous, handicapped or visible minority people[2]. The aim is admittedly to improve the ratio of these four groups among professors. It is of course a great measure that must be applauded. But at the same time, putting some perspective to the issue raises questions regarding the reasons for such a dire need. Positive discrimination (when people of equal qualifications are available, a woman or a person from a visible minority, or a handicapped person will be chosen to better represent their weight in the PhD population) has been in place for a long time in this institution as well as in most of universities in Canada. How is it possible then that, in 2019, the need is so dire that a call for such positions needs to be strictly restrained to these groups, especially women? At the very least, it tells us that women in Quebec – and most probably elsewhere in Canada - are still experiencing great deals of marginality, for even some of the privileged ones – with PhD degrees – are still not treated equally when it comes to the recognition of knowledge, skills and experiences.

From a conceptual and theoretical point of view, how can these two interesting examples help us to better situate marginality? First, they certainly invite us to more caution in the use of the vocabulary. Marginality is embedded in power relations, relations that are varying across various reference systems. A Black woman might hold a PhD degree, making her a privileged person within the whole society, but if within the scientific world her power remains low because she is a woman of colour, then she is experiencing marginality. In the first example, the discrimination towards Japanese women constitutes a decision made by people with authority based on sexist prejudices. They contribute to reduce the range of possible options for women, reduce their capacity to be educated, and thus, finally, make it more difficult for them to gain power in the various systems within which they participate. In brief, they experience marginalisation. In the second example, we are witnessing that, even after several years of positive discrimination, some groups are still experiencing high level of marginality because their weight among graduates is not reflected among those who are obtaining jobs. Positive discrimination remains necessary in 2019 to continue to reduce their level of marginality.

In brief, marginality and discrimination represent non-equivalent and complementary concepts to understand these situations. Discrimination bears testimony to unequal powers within society. If some can afford to discriminate against others, it means that they have some power to do it. Relations are unequal and some groups have a high level of marginality. But also, discrimination can contribute to diminish even more the various options available to these groups, for example, to access to education, knowledge in general, to acquire skills or information; and this reduces their power within the systems in which they participate even more. Reducing the capacities of these groups to make decisions constitute a process of marginalisation.

Following these thoughts, my message to all of you for the new year is that, during this next year I suggest that, while you are studying marginality in remote areas, you also pay attention to marginality that could be standing just beside you.

Steve Déry, Quebec City and Ottawa, 8 January 2019


PUBLICATIONS

The fourth volume in our series Perspectives on geographical marginality has been published by Springer just after New Year’s Day. Rural areas between regional needs and global challenges (ISBN 978-3-030-04392-6; for the eBook ISBN 978-3-030-04393-3) provides the readers with a glimpse of the multifunctionality that is increasingly characterizing the rural world.

CONFERENCE REPORT

Our commission met during the 2018 Regional Conference of the IGU in Quebec City, Canada, that took place from August 6 – 11. The papers were organized in five sessions, partly in collaboration with the Commission on Regional Development. At first, the Commission on Tourism was supposed to join, the way the organization of the program was made did let us much room for that kind of collaboration. However, even the cooperation of the first two commissions was not recognized as such in the program. It has to be noted that the organizing committee of the Congress made a mistake with the identification of the Commission: our Commission bears the number C16.29 but was wrongly identified as 31 during the congress in all the published documentation, which led to some irritation.

Five paper sessions were held on Tuesday, August 7 (sessions 1-4) and Thursday, August 9 (session 5) with the 19 following papers:

Session 1: Tools of demarginalization in the local and regional development: what role for landscape and tourism?

Konrad Czapiewski (Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Poland): Territorial Inequalities and Local Development – some narrative stories from Poland

Krystian Heffner (University of Economics in Katowice) & Agniesza Latocha (Institute of Geography and Regional Development, Wroclaw): Desolated villages as example of spatial, economic and social marginalization in the Polish-Czech borderland

Walter Leimgruber (Université de Fribourg/CH): Nature Parks: valorising regional potential. The example of the Gruyère Pays-d'Enhaut regional nature park (Fribourg/Vaud, Switzerland)

Jamal Abdullah (Universaiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam): Voting patterns in marginal rural areas in the 2018 general election in Malaysia

Session 2: Tools of demarginalization in the local and regional development: what role for landscape and tourism in Europe?

Jerzy Banski (Polish Academy of Sciences): Structure and valorization of local resources in Eastern Poland

Toivo Muilu (Natural Resources Institute Finland – Luke) : Policies of sparsely populated rural areas in Finland

Kristjan Nemac (Science and Research Centre Koper): Do we need to change the system? Think global and create a local alternative

Hugo Capella Miternique (Universitat Illes Baleares): Ibiza’s diversity: from merge to de-gendered leisure

Session 3: Migrations, adaptations, identities and frontiers

Tomas Havlicek (Charles University Prague): Relict (phantom) borders as present social-cultural divide in Czechia: an example of geography of religion

Borna Fuerst-Bjelis (Uiversity of Zagreb): Appreciating differences and coexistence of identities: evidence from the multicultural historical borderlands of Croatia

Thomas Larsen (Kansas State University): Moving Forward with Migration and Geography Awareness

Week

Session 4: Between the local and global: multiscalar economic inequalities and development Atsushi Taira (Kagawa University): Small and medium-sized "global-niche" firms in Japan: a key for rejuvenation of Japan's local economy?

Yehua Dennis Wei (University of Utah): Beyond Convergence: Spatial Polarization, Place Mobility and the Core-Peripheral Structure in China

Matthew Fahrenbruch (University of Kansas): Challenges to Demarginalization. The case of fisheries governance and the development of the export jellyfish fishery on the Miskito Coast of Nicaragua

Mahvish Anjum (Aligarh Muslim University): Custodians of Chikankari Industry in Lucknow City, India:

An Occupational Analysis

Session 5: Nouveaux modèles d’action en développement territorial

Bernard Pecqueur (Université Grenoble Alpes) : Innovation sociale et revitalisation des territoires ruraux : le « tiers lieu » de Vizille (France)

Pierre-Antoine Landel (Université Grenoble Alpes) : Interroger la capacité transformative de l’innovation sociale : l’hypothèse de l’opérateur territorial de la transition

Mélanie Doyon (UQAM) : Modèle agricole alternatif et développement des territoires ruraux; le cas de La Clé des Champs de Saint-Camille

Juan-Luis Klein (UQAM) : L’innovation sociale, le « Buen Vivir » et les nouveaux modèles d’action en développement territorial

Business meeting

The Commission held a business meeting open to all members, old and new, on Wednesday, August 8. The following topics were discussed:

a. The next conference is to take place in Nepal in November/December 2019. Details will be furnished by the organizer, Prof. Pushkar Pradhan.

b. There is a proposal for 2020 to hold a pre-congress conference in Cluj Napoca, Romania, preceding the Istanbul IGC.

c. The collaboration with Springer who edit the series Perspectives on Geographical

Marginality is continuing well. The new contact person, Mrs. Evelien Bakker, showed great enthusiasm and willingness to help with contacts. Apart from the fourth volume in the series that is almost ready, there a number of projects and members are encouraged to become more active. It is possible to suggest single author books as well. Please contact the series editors: Steve Déry (Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca), Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš (bornafb@geog.pmf.hr), Walter Leimgruber (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch), Etienne Nel (nelet43p@geography.otago.ac.nz), Stanko Pelc (stanko.pelc@guest.arnes.si).

d. The Newsletter should become not only an outlet for information but also a medium for discussion. Members will be encouraged to hand in short texts to be included with the aim to stimulate reflections and debates on marginality issues. Or reply to those which are already proposed.

FORTHCOMING CONFERENCES

Our Commission invites members to participate in two conferences in 2019, a regional one in Ireland and our official one in Nepal. You are welcome to participate in both.

1. Galway, Ireland, 15-18 May, 2019

The 7th EUGEO Congress on the Geography of Europe will be held in conjunction with the

51st Conference of Irish Geographers. For details see https://www.eugeo2019.eu The dates are Wednesday May 15 – Saturday 18, 2019. The venue is the National University of Ireland, Galway

Our Commission is convening a session on the topic Marginality within the European context seen through geographical lenses. Registration opened on December 3, 2018 and will end on February 1, 2019. Convenors are Steve Déry (Université Laval, Québec), Stanko Pelc (University of Primorska/SI, chief convenor, stanko.pelc@pef.upr.si); Fatima Velez de Castro, (Universidade de Combria, CEGOT/PT;) Walter Leimgruber, (University of Fribourg/CH).

All members are invited to participate although this conference has more of a regional focus. However, we thought it useful to be present also on this European level, maybe encouraging members to organize regional conference sessions on other continents as well, in the context of similar events.

2. Nepal, December December 8 – 15 2019 (tentative)

Our member Pushkar Pradhan has offered to organized our 2019 annual conference in his country.

The tentative date, just before the Christmas break, is justified by the weather. Winter is the best season to visit Nepal as it is the dry season.

The tentative title is Natural Disasters, Marginalized Regions and Labour Migration. The conference will include paper sessions and a 5-day field trip to Sirubari village and surroundings, southwest of Pokhara. Situated around 1,500 – 1,600 m asl, the village offers accommodation in a homestay and is home to a unique ethnic group. Further information will be mailed in the not too distant future.

OTHER CONFERENCES

2019 RSA Australasia Conference, Christchurch, Aotearoa New Zealand

Urban and Rural Wellbeing, First Nations Economies and Global Value Chains for Regional Sustainability

February 11 – 13, 2019

https://www.regionalstudies.org/events/urban-and-rural-wellbeing-first-nations-economies-andglobal-value-chains-for-regional-sustainability/

2019 RSA Annual Conference, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Pushing Regions beyond their Borders

June 05 – 07, 2019

https://www.regionalstudies.org/events/pushing-regions-beyond-their-borders/

2019 RSA Central and Eastern Europe Conference, Lublin, Poland

Metropolises and Peripheries of CEE Countries: New Challenges for EU, National and Regional Policies

September 11 – 13, 2019

https://www.regionalstudies.org/events/CEE2019/

STEERING COMMITTEE FOR 2016-2020

Chair of the commission

Prof. Steve Déry,

Université Laval

Département de géographie

2405, rue de la Terrasse, Québec, QUÉBEC

Canada, G1V 0A6

Phone: 1-418-656-2131 poste 5107

E-mail: Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca

Steering committee members

Dr. Firuza Begham Binti Mustafa, Senior Lecturer

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Phone: 79675536

E-mail: firuza@um.edu.my

Prof. Borna Fuerst-Bjeliš

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Faculty of Science, Department of Geography

Marulićev trg 19/II,10000 Zagreb

Croatia

Web: www.pmf.unizg.hr/geog/borna.fuerst-bjelis

Phone: +385 1 4895 428

E-mail: bornafb@geog.pmf.hr

Prof. Ruth Kark

Department of Geography Faculty of Social Sciences

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905,

Israel

Telephone Home: 972-2-643-4820

Fax: 972-2-643-4820

E-mail: mskark@mscc.huji.ac.il

Prof. Daichi Kohmoto, Associate Professor of Geography

Nara University of Education,

Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 Japan

Phone:

E-mail: daichizu@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Kenneth Matengu, Pro-Vice Chancellor: Research, Innovation and Development

University of Namibia,

340 Mandume Ndemufayo Ave Pionierspark, Windhoek,

Namibia

Phone: +264 61 206 3944

Fax: +264 61 242644

E-mail: kmatengu@unam.na

Dr. Toivo Muilu

Natural Resources Institute Finland (professor)

Department of Geography (adjunct professor)

Po Box 413

FI-90014 University of Oulu

Finland

Phone: +358 29 532 6722

E-mail: toivo.muilu@luke.fi

Dr. Catherine Robinson, adjunct associate professor

University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD 4072,

Australia

Phone: +61 7 3365 1111

E-mail: Catherine.Robinson@csiro.au

Prof. Claudio Urra Coletti

Instituto de Geografía

Facultad de Filosofía y Letras

Universidad Nacional de Cuyo Mendoza – Argentina Phone:

E-mail: urra73@gmail.com

Commission Secretary

Prof. Emeritus Walter Leimgruber

Université de Fribourg

Département de Géosciences, Unité de Géographie

Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, Suisse

Phone: ++41 26 300 90 10

E-mail: walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch

YOUR ADDRESS UPDATE:

Please help us to keep the address list updated by communicating your new address, phone number, skype address, and e-mail address to the Commission chair

(Steve.Dery@ggr.ulaval.ca) and/or the secretary (walter.leimgruber@unifr.ch).



[1] Constitution d’une banque de personnes candidates pour des concours internes de Chaires de recherche du Canada CRSNG et CRSH (niveau 2), Faculté de foresterie, de géographie, et de géomatique, Université Laval (affiche rendue publique en décembre 2018).

[2] Constitution d’une banque de personnes candidates pour des concours internes de Chaires de recherche du Canada CRSNG et CRSH (niveau 2), Faculté de foresterie, de géographie, et de géomatique, Université Laval (affiche rendue publique en décembre 2018).

Commission Newsletter 2018 – 1

L’échange écologique inégal : vers une marginalité plus profonde? / The unequal ecological exchange: towards deeper marginality? – Publications – Conferences – Steering Committee

L’ÉCHANGE ÉCOLOGIQUE INÉGAL : VERS UNE MARGINALITÉ PLUS PROFONDE ?

Bonjour à tous,

En ce début d’été (dans l’hémisphère nord), j’introduis ce bulletin à partir de l’une de mes lectures récentes. Il s’agit d’un article de Christophe Bonneuil, paru dans la revue Association Écorev’, dans le numéro 44, premier du volume de 2017. Bonneuil réfléchit à la notion « d’échange écologique inégal ». Pour lui, l’essor économique des États centraux du système-monde, quelles que soient les époques, n’a été rendu possible que par un endettement écologique à l’endroit du reste du monde. Cet endettement construit un échange écologique inégal (Bonneuil, 2017, p.55). Comment cette notion se distingue-t-elle ou s’apparente-t-elle à l’échange inégal?

« Tandis que la notion marxiste d’échange inégal s’intéressait à une dégradation des termes de l’échange entre périphérie et centre mesurée en quantité de travail, celle d’« échange écologique inégal » explore l’asymétrie qui se joue lorsque des territoires périphériques ou dominés du système économique mondial exportent des produits à forte valeur d’usage écologique contre des produits qui ont une moindre valeur d’usage écologique voire sont générateurs de nuisances. Cette valeur écologique peut se mesurer en hectares nécessaires à la production de différents biens et services, au moyen de l’indicateur d’« empreinte écologique » » (Bonneuil, 2017, p.55). (je souligne)

D’un point de vue de géographe qui s’intéresse aux questions de marginalité, les réflexions de Bonneuil nous stimulent sur au moins quatre points.

Premièrement, la construction de ces échanges écologiques inégaux est systémique et doit être considérée d’une manière multiscalaire. Les espaces, et les matières premières qu’on y trouve, sont utilisés pour devenir des ressources, mais les acteurs sont variés et présents dans plusieurs systèmes, emboités ou non, à plusieurs niveaux géographiques, ce qui rend complexe leur analyse et la capacité à retracer les acteurs primordiaux. Et donc les coupables, lorsqu’il y en a. C’est pour cela que, par exemple, Bonneuil parle de « crime climatique » (Bonneuil, 2017).

Pour compliquer le tout, deuxièmement, on peut dire qu’au départ, il y a une méconnaissance profonde de ces valeurs d’usage écologique dont parle Bonneuil. Certes, nos connaissances globales des écosystèmes, des systèmes sociaux et des liens entre les deux ont progressé d’une manière fulgurante au cours des dernières décennies. Pourtant, le fardeau de la preuve, par rapport à l’innocuité d’une ponction ou d’une exploitation pour les écosystèmes et les systèmes sociaux locaux, repose toujours sur la collectivité qui subit les ponctions, au mieux avec l’aide de l’État s’il n’a pas été complètement démantelé. Si le fardeau de la preuve reposait sur les épaules de celui qui souhaite exploiter une matière première pour en produire une ressource, la dynamique des échanges ne serait pas la même et il y aurait une reconnaissance plus forte de cet endettement.

Troisièmement, par cette ponction dans les ressources de base des systèmes géographiques locaux, par exemple en Asie, en Afrique ou en Amérique latine, les pays européens ou nord-américains contribuent à réduire la capacité d’adaptation des populations locales aux changements climatiques qui se déroulent actuellement, en particulier les impacts environnementaux en général et écologiques en particulier.

Enfin, quatrièmement, la réduction de la capacité d’adaptation contribue par ricochet à réduire le pouvoir des populations concernées dans les systèmes auxquels ils participent, augmentant ainsi de facto leur marginalité.

Pour toutes ces raisons, il serait approprié que les chercheurs qui travaillent sur la marginalité intègrent à leurs cadres théoriques et conceptuels cette notion d’échange écologique inégal.

Steve Déry

Ottawa, 28 juin 2018

THE UNEQUAL ECOLOGICAL EXCHANGE: TOWARDS DEEPER MARGINALITY?

Hello to everyone,

In this beginning of summer (in the northern hemisphere), I introduce this Newsletter using one of my recent readings. It is an article written by Christophe Bonneuil, published in 2017, issue 44, of Association Ecorev’. Bonneuil give some thoughts to the notion “unequal ecological exchange”. For him, the growth of central States in the World-System, whatever the period, was made possible through an ecological borrowing (ecological indebtedness) towards the rest of the world. This debt process builds on an unequal ecological exchange (Bonneuil, 2017, p.55). How can this notion be distinguished from or related to the “unequal exchange”?

“The Marxist notion of unequal exchange took an interest to the degradation of the terms of exchange [the Prebisch–Singer hypothesis in the AngloSaxon literature] between peripheries and centers measured in terms of a quantity of labour. The “unequal ecological exchange” notion explores the asymmetrical relation at play when peripheral or dominated territories in the World-system are exporting products with a strong ecological use value while importing products with a lower ecological use value, or generating nuisances. This ecological value can be measured in hectares necessary to produce various goods and services, with the “ecological footprint” indicator” (personal translation, emphasis SD, Bonneuil, 2017, p.55)

For geographers interested in marginality issues, Bonneuil’s analysis is stimulating on at least four points.

Firstly, building these unequal ecological exchanges is systemic and must considered with a multiscalar approach. Spaces, and raw material found in them, are used and become resources, but actors are manifold and present in multiple systems, embedded or not, at various geographical levels. This makes the analysis quite complex, as well as the tracking of primordial actors - the guilty people if there are. This is the reason why Bonneuil, for example, talks about “climate crimes” (Bonneuil, 2017).

Secondly, we can say that, in the beginning, there is a deep lack of knowledge regarding these ecological use values described by Bonneuil. Of course, our general knowledge of ecosystems, social systems and the links between them has enormously progressed during the last few decades. However, the burden of proof, regarding the safety for eco- or social systems of any puncture or exploitation, still rests on the collectivity that is subjected to these punctures; at best, the State could help a bit, if it has not been completely dismantled. With the burden of proof on the shoulders of those who want to exploit any raw material to create resources, the exchange dynamic would be completely different and there would be a better recognition of these ecological debts.

Thirdly, this puncture within basic resources in local geographical systems in Asia, Africa or Latin America, European or North-American countries contribute to reducing the adaptation capacity of local populations in the face of current and future climate change, especially environmental impacts in general, and ecological ones in particular.

And finally, fourthly, reducing the adaptation capacity contributes indirectly to reducing both the power of populations involved in these “exchanges”, within the systems in which they participate, thus de facto augmenting their marginality.

For all these reasons, it would be very appropriate that researchers working on marginality issues add this notion of “unequal ecological exchange” to their theoretical and conceptual frameworks.

Steve Déry

Ottawa, 29 June 2018

Publications

The manuscript of the fourth volume of our series “Perspectives on Geographical Marginalization” has been completed and is on its way to review and production. We hope that it will be published this year. It is devoted to rural issues. Further volumes are under considereation.

Publication signalled by members

Déry Steve (2017) Des Cent-Îles aux Cent-Géographies : pérégrinations sud-est asiatiques du géographe Rodolphe De Koninck. Cahiers de géographie du Québec, 173(61) : 235-252.

Rönkkö Emilia, Luusua Anna, Aarrevaara Eeva, Herneoja Aulikki and Muilu Toivo (2017). New resource-wise planning strategies for smart urban-rural development in Finland. Systems 5:1, 12 p.

Open access: www.mdpi.com/2079-8954/5/1/10

Korhonen Kirsi, Kotavaara Ossi, Muilu Toivo and Rusanen Jarmo (2017). Accessibility of local food production to regional markets : case of berry production in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. European Countryside 9:4, 709-728. Open access: www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/euco.2017.9.issue-4/euco-2017-0040/euco-2017-0040.pdf

Andrew Koleros, Dee Jupp, Sean Kirwan, Meeta S. Pradhan, Pushkar K. Pradhan, David Seddon, and Ansu Tumbahangfe (2015), Methodological considerations in evaluating long-term systems of change: A case study from eastern Nepal. American Journal of Evaluation, 1-17. DOI: 10:1177/1098214015615231 aje.sagepub.com

Eva Wieners, Pushkar Pradhan, Martin Neuburger and Udo Schickhoff (2015), Implementation of Backcasting in a Development Project in Nepal. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic, and Social Sustainability: Annual Review, Volume 11: 35-46.

Pushkar K. Pradhan and Puspa Sharma (2016). Nepal: Urban Environment Analysis. Environmental Geography of South Asia: Contributions Towards a Future Earth Initiative. Editors: R. B. Singh, Pawel Prokop, SPRINGER Japan (e-book): 305-334. www.springer.com

Pushkar K Pradhan and Puspa Sharma (2017), Land Use Change and Its Driving Forces in the Koshi Hills, Eastern Nepal. Ainong Li, Wei Deng and Wei Zhao (Editors), Land Cover Change and Its Eco-environmental Responses in Nepal. Springer Geography. pp: 67-108. DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-2890-8

Puspa Sharma and Pushkar K Pradhan (2017), The Petty Street Vendors and Their Livelihoods of the Kathmandu Valley Cities, Nepal. Ainong Li, Wei Deng and Wei Zhao (Editors), Land Cover Change and Its Eco-environmental Responses in Nepal. Springer Geography. pp: 359-382. DOI 10.1007/978981-10-2890-8

Bandana Pradhan, Puspa Sharma and Pushkar K. Pradhan (2018). Urban Growth and Environment and Health Hazards in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Advancing Urban Health and Wellbeing. ICSU- Springer Book Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, India (in press).